Author’s Blog

Timeline 3B – Egyptians in the Postdiluvian Era’s late phase

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted August 14, 2017

On June 19, 2017, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below.

                                                   GENERIC TIMELINES:
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 3 – THE POSTDILUVIAN WORLD (2321-1464 BC)—
—Phase 3B – The Late Postdiluvian World (1870-1464 BC)—
—Period3B(1) – The Pre-Job Time (1870-1667 BC)—

Egypt’s 4th Dynasty (E04) continued

Seochris (E04-02) (SL #08) – He was also known as Chephren, Kafre, and Sufi II. He ruled Egypt for 49 years (1878-1829 BC), the last 41 years (1870-1829 BC) of which fell in this period.

Sepchris is credited by the archaeologists with building the 2nd largest pyramid at Giza reign.

Amenemes (E04-03) (SL #09) – He was also known as Menkeres, Menkaure, and Mykerinos. He ruled Egypt for 63 years (1829-1766 BC), but only the first 29 years (1829-1800 BC) over all Egypt.

Amenemes is credited by the archaeologists with building the third largest pyramid at Giza.

The 1st Abraham Threat occurred in 1819 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

During Amenemes’ reign, triplets were born to the royal family at Elephantine. Their names were Userkaf, Sahura, and Ka-kaa. Userkaf developed into a very able military leader.

In 1800 BC, Userkaf seized control of all four areas of Egypt[1] and established Egypt’s 5th Dynasty (E05).

Egypt’s 5th Dynasty (E05)

The rule of Egypt’s 5th Dynasty is confusing. It ostensibly lasted for 143 years (1800-1657 BC), but actually lasted for only 89 years (1800-1711 BC). First, Userkaf allowed Amenemes to continue on the throne at Memphis as a satrap for another 34 years (1800-1766 BC). Second, Userkaf and his brothers kept moving from throne to throne in other areas – engaging in something similar to “musical chairs.” Following the Sothis List (SL), they ruled as follows:

Amasis (E05-01) (SL #10) – He was also known as Userkaf (triplet #1), Ratoises, Usercheres, Chaires, Rayois, and Chamois. He ruled Egypt for 2 years (1800-1797 BC).

Acesphthres (E05-02) (SL #11) – He was also known as Sahura (triplet #2), Miamus, Biyres, and Sefres. He ruled Egypt for 13 years (1798-1785 BC).

Anchoreus (E05-03) (SL #12) – He was also known as Ka-kaa (triplet #3), Sebercheres, Shepsekf, and Nephercheres.  He ruled Egypt for 9 years (1785-1776 BC).

Armiyes (E05-04) (SL #13) – He was also known as Thamfthis. He ruled Egypt for 4 years (1776-1772 BC).

Amesis (E05-05) (SL #16) – He was also known as Rhatures. He ruled for 65 years (1772-1707 BC) – the first 61 years (1772-1711 BC) over all Egpyt.

The 1st Isaac Threat occurred in 1769 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

The 2nd Isaac Threat occurred in 1718 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

In 1711 BC, Egypt was conquered by Amenemhet I, who established Egypt’s 12th Dynasty (E12) in Thebes.

Egypt’s 12th Dynasty (E12)

Amenemhet I (E12-01) – He ruled Egypt for 19 years (1711-1692 BC), but he permitted first Amesis to remain on the throne of Memphis as a satrap for 4 years (1711-1707 BC) and then Uses (SL #17), who was also known as Unus and Onnus, to continue on the throne of Memphis for 15 years (1707-1692 BC).

Sesostris I (E12-02) – He was coregent with Amenemhet I for 10 years (1702-1692 BC) and then ruled Thebes for 35 years (1692-1657 BC), the first 25 years (1692-1667 BC) of which fell in this period. He also allowed Uses to remain on the throne of Memphis as a satrap during this period.

In 1688 BC, Sesostris I appointed Joseph as Vizier and Treasurer of Egypt. Joseph’s Egyptian name was Mentuhotep, and Sesostris I gave him authority in the land second only to that exercised by himself.[2]

In 1688-1681 BC, the Seven Years of Plenty occurred.

In 1681-1674 BC, the Seven Years of Famine occurred. It fell in the reigns of both Sesostris I [3] and Uses.

The Job Disturbance occurred in 1667 BC, probably when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Raining fire, hurricane winds, and earthquakes killed Job’s children.

— Period 3B(2) – The Post-Job Time (1667-1464 BC)—

Egypt’s 12th Dynasty (E12) continued

Sesostris I (E12-02) – He was coregent with Amenemhet I for 10 years (1702-1692 BC) and then ruled Thebes for 35 years (1692-1657 BC), the last 10 years (1167-1657 BC) of which fell in this period. He continued to allow Uses to sit on the throne of Memphis as a satrap for the last 10 years (1667-1657 BC) of his reign.

Amenemhet II (E12-03) – He was also known as Ramses. He was coregent with Sesostris I for 3 years (1660-1657 BC) and then ruled Thebes for 35 years (1657-1622 BC).

Sesostris II (E12-04) – He was also known as Ramsesomenes. He was coregent with Amenemhet II for 5 years (1627-1622 BC) and then ruled Thebes for 43 years (1622-1579 BC).

The Joseph Threat occurred in 1616 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

Usimare was coregent with Sesostris II for 31 years (1612-1581 BC).

Sesostris III (E12-05) – He was also known as Ramessesos. He was coregent with Sesostris II for 2 years (1581-1579 BC) and then ruled Thebes for 23 years (1579-1556 BC).

The 1st Hiatus Threat occurred in 1566 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

Amenemhet III (E12-06). He was also known as Ramesse-Meno. He ruled Thebes for 48 years (1556-1508 BC). He built brick structures in the Nile delta and was undoubtedly the pharaoh who “knew not Joseph” and enslaved the Hebrews.

The 2nd Hiatus Threat occurred in 1515 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

Sebeknefrure (E12-07) – She was also known as Ramesse-ubasse. She was the daughter of Amenemhet III. She was coregent with him for 29 years (1537-1508 BC) and then ruled Thebes for 10 years (1508-1498 BC). She was undoubtedly Moses’ foster mother.

Amenemhet IV – He was undoubtedly Moses – He was adopted by Sebeknefrure c. 1543, raised by her father and herself as a Prince of Egypt, served as her coregent for 4 years (1508-1504 BC), and then disappeared from Egyptian records. His tomb has never been found.

Sothis List’s 12th Dynasty (1657-1498 BC)

Ramses (SL #18) – He was also known as Amenemhet II (E12-03). He ruled Egypt for 30 years (1657-1627 BC).

Ramesomenes (SL #19) – He was also known as Sesostris II (E12-04). He ruled Egypt for 15 years (1627-1612 BC).

Usimare (SL #20) – He ruled Egypt for 31 years (1612-1581 BC).

Ramessesos (SL #21) – He was also known as Sesostris III (E12-05). He  ruled Egypt for 25 years (1581-1556 BC).

Ramesse-Meno (SL #22) – He was also known as Amenemhet III (E12-06). He ruled Egypt for 19 years (1556-1537 BC). He built with brick in the Nile delta

Ramesse-ubasse (SL #23) –  She was also known as Sebeknefrure (E12-07). She was the daughter of Ramesse-Meno. She ruled Egypt for 39 years (1537-1498 BC).

Egypt’s 13th Dynasty (E13)

Ramesse (E13-01) (SL #24) – He ruled Egypt for 29 years (1498-1469 BC).

Concharis (E13-02) (SL #25) – He ruled Egypt for 5 years (1469-1464 BC).

In 1464 BC, God appeared to Moses in a burning bush, which was not consumed by the fire, and identified himself as the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He said that he had heard the cries of his people, who were living in sore bondage in Egypt, and he commanded Moses to return to Egypt, assume leadership of his people,[4] and tell Pharaoh Concharis to let his people go. Moses did so. Concharis refused.

In the subsequent confrontations between Moses and Cocharis, God visited ten plagues[5] on Egypt that were caused by the tail of the comet Venus which preceded the main body as it flew toward the earth. Despite the damage to Egypt, Concharis continued refusing to let the Hebrews go until the 10th plague arrived.

The 10th plague consisted of the death of the first-born of the Egyptian families, but not the first-born of the Hebrew families, who were protected by the blood of the innocent lambs that, in accordance with God’s instructions, had been painted on the doorposts of their homes. Concharis relented and told the Hebrews that they could leave Egypt. Moses assembled his people into a great caravan and then led them across the top of the Red Sea, down the southwest coast of the Sinai Peninsula to Pi-Ha-Kiroth, the western landfall of the Strait of Tiran. During their journey, the comet arrived.

The Moses Disturbance occurred in 1464 BC, when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus intersected. As the comet approached the earth, it was on its way from perihelion. Being repelled by the sun, its tail therefore preceded it. The earth’s immersion in the tail produced the Ten Plagues of Egypt, which laid waste to the land and precipitated the Exodus of the Hebrews. The subsequent close encounters between the earth and the comet produced volcanism, hurricane winds, torrential rains, falling naphtha, electrical discharges, earthquakes, tectonic upheavals and subsidences, tsunamis, and darkness across the entire globe. All forms of terrestrial life were devastated.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
________________________________________

[1] Memphis/Sakara, Thinis/Abydos, Thebes/Diospolis, and Elephantine.

[2] As Donovan Courville pointed out (The Exodus Problem, Volume 1, 1971, p. 141-142), the great Egyptologist James H. Breasted wrote that Mentuhotep’s powers “…read like the declaration of the king’s powers” (A History of Egypt, 1954, p. 166) and Henry Brugsch-Bey wrote, “…Mentuhotep…appears as the alter ego of the king. ‘When he arrived, the great personages bowed down before him at the outer door of the royal palace.’” (A History of Egypt Under the Pharaohs, Volume 1, 2nd ed., 1881, p. 162 – translation by Philip Smith). See also Genesis 41:41-43.

[3] Another of Sesostris I’s viziers, Ameni, who administered during the pharaoh’s regnal years 18-43 (1684-1659 BC) recorded that Egypt experienced a severe and extended famine during his administration – an obvious reference to the Seven Years of Famine (1681-1674 BC) which Joseph had predicted.

[4] Moses was born in 1544 BC, spent 40 years as Prince of Egypt (1544-1504 BC), fled Egypt in 1504 BC, spent 40 years (1504-1464 BC) shepherding his father-n-law’s sheep in Midian, encountered God on Mount Sinai and then returned to Egypt in 1464, spent 40 years (1464-1424 BC) leading the Hebrews during their Exodus from Egypt and their wandering in the Desert of Midian, and then died in 1424 BC when he was 120 years old.

[5] See note 5 in last week’s blog entitled “Timeline 3B – Hebrews in the Postdiluvian Era’s late phase.

 

 

Timeline 3B – Hebrews in the Postdiluvian Era’s late phase

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted August 7, 2017

On June 19, 2017, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below.

                                               GENERIC TIMELINES:
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 3 – THE POSTDILUVIAN WORLD (2321-1464 BC)—
—Phase 3B – The Late Postdiluvian World (1870-1464 BC)—
—Period3B(1) – The Pre-Job Time (1870-1667 BC)—

Abraham (HP-20) led the Hebrews for 76 years (1870-1794 BC) during this period. During these years occurred the following:

In 1870 BC, Isaac (HP21-gen 21), a son of Abraham and Sarah, was born.

In 1851 BC, Selah died after living 433 years (2284-1851 BC).

In 1833 BC, Sarah died after living 127 years (1960-1833 BC).

In 1829 BC, Isaac and Rebecca were married.

In 1819 BC, Shem died after living 600 years (2419-1819 BC).

The 1st Abraham Threat occurred in 1819 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

In 1809 BC, Esau (gen 22) and Jacob (HP22-gen 22), the twin sons of Isaac, were born.

In 1794 BC, Abraham died after living 175 years (1969-1794 BC). He was succeeded by his son Isaac.

Isaac (HP21-gen 21) led the Hebrews for 105 years (1794-1689 BC) during this period. During these years occurred the following:

In 1790 BC, Eber died after living 464 years (2254-1790 BC).

The 1st Isaac Threat occurred in 1769 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

In 1732 BC, Jacob and Leah were married.

Jacob’s 1st Service to Laban, Leah’s father, lasted 7 years (1732-1725 BC).

In 1725 BC, Jacob and Rachel were married.

2nd Service to Laban, Rachel’s father, lasted 7 years (1725-1718 BC).

In 1718 BC, Joseph (HP23–gen 23), a son of Jacob by Rachel, was born. He lived 110 years (1718-1608 BC).

The 2nd Isaac Threat occurred in 1718 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

 In, Jacob’s 3rd Service to Laban lasted 6 years (1718-1712 BC).

In 1701 BC, when Joseph was 17 years old, Isaac gave him a beautiful “coat of many colors” and God gave him dreams in which his father, mother, and eleven brothers would bow down to him. His brother were so jealous of Joseph’s favored treatment by their father and the import of Joseph’s dream that they seized him, stole his coat, and sold him as a slave to some Ishmaelites ( or Midianites) who then traveled down to Egypt and sold him to Potiphar, the captain of Pharaoh’s guard.

Joseph soon found favor with Potiphar, for the latter saw that the Lord was with Joseph and whatsoever Joseph put his hand to prospered. Potiphar eventually made Joseph overseer of his household.

In 1691 BC, while serving as overseer in Potiphar’s household, Potiphar’s wife attempted to seduce Joseph and then, when he fled from her, accused him of attempting to seduce her. Potiphar then had Joseph thrown into prison.

Circa 1690 BC, Pharaoh Sesostris I became displeased with his chief butler and chief baker and had them thrown into prison, where they met Joseph. Each of them had a dream, which Joseph interpreted correctly. In three days, the chief butler would be released from prison and restored to his position in the palace and the chief baker would be hanged on a tree. Things happened exactly as Joseph had predicted.

In 1689 BC, Isaac died after living 180 years (1869-1689 BC).

Jacob (HP22-gen 22) led the Hebrews for the remaining 22 years (1689-1667 BC) in this period. During these years occurred the following:

In 1688 BC, two years following the release of the chief baker, Pharaoh Sesostris I had a dream which no one at the court was able to interpret. The chief baker remembered Joseph’s accurate interpretation of his own dream and spoke to Pharaoh about Joseph. As a result, Pharaoh had Joseph brought before him and related his dream to Joseph. On the basis of the dream, Joseph predicted that Egypt would soon experience Seven Years of Plenty followed immediately by Seven Years of Famine. Joseph indicated that God had given Pharaoh this dream to permit him to prepare for the next fourteen years. He then suggested the manner in which Pharaoh should prepare, starting with the appointment of a “discreet and wise” man first to gather and store provisions during the Seven Years of Plenty and then to manage the distribution of the provisions during the Seven Years of Famine, so that the people do not starve. Pharaoh was so impressed by Joseph’s close relationship with God and Joseph’s wise counsel for himself that he appointed Joseph to be that “discreet and wise” man.

Joseph became Governor of Egypt at the age of 30 years old. His Egyptian name was Mentuhotep, to whom was given authority in Egypt second only to the pharaoh himself.

In 1688-1681 BC, the Seven Years of Plenty occurred. During these years, Joseph stored grain in the pharaoh’s silos in sufficient amounts to feed the Egyptians for seven years.

In 1681-1674 BC, the Seven Years of Famine occurred. During these years, Joseph sold the pharaoh’s grain to the Egyptians in exchange for their land and livestock, thereby concentrating all the wealth of Egypt in the hands of the Sesostris I.

In 1679, in response to the famine in Canaan, Jacob led the Hebrews down to Egypt (the Descent into Egypt). He and his family were welcomed by both Joseph and Sesostris I. Thus the Hebrew’s Sojourn in Egypt began, which lasted 215 years (1679-1464 BC).

The Job Disturbance occurred in 1667 BC, probably when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Raining fire, hurricane winds, and earthquakes killed Job’s children.

— Period 3B(2) – The Post-Job Time (1667-1464 BC)—

Jacob (HP22-gen 22) led the Hebrews for the first 5 years (1667-1662 BC) of this period. During these years occurred the following:

In 1662 BC Jacob died after living 147 years (1667-1602 BC).

Joseph (HP23-gen 23) led the Hebrews for the next 54 years (1662-1608 BC) of this period. During these years occurred the following:

The Joseph Threat occurred in 1616 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

In 1608 BC, Joseph died after living 110 years (1718-1608 BC).

A Hiatus in leadership of the Hebrews lasted for the remaining 144 years (1608-1464 BC) of this period. During these years occurred the following:

In 1579 BC, 29 years after Joseph’s death, Sesostris II died and Sesostris III acceded to the throne. He was not a member of the royal family, and he commenced building with brick in the Nile delta. He is undoubtedly the pharaoh who “knew not Joseph” and commenced the oppression of the Hebrews, which lasted 115 years (1579-1464 BC).

The 1st Hiatus Threat occurred in 1566 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

In 1547 BC, Aaron was born. He lived 123 years (1547-1424 BC), the first 83 years (1547-1464 BC) of which fell in this period.

In 1544 BC, Moses was born. He lived 120 years (1544-1424 BC), the first 80 years (1544-1464 BC) of which fell in this period.

Circa 1543 BC, Moses’ mother set him afloat in a reed boat on the Nile. He was found by Sebeknefrure, who was also known as Ramesse-ubasse, the daughter of the pharaoh Amenemhet III, who ruled Egypt for 48 years (1556-1508 BC). She was undoubtedly Moses’ foster mother and raised him as a prince of Egypt, whose Egyptian name was Amenemhet IV. He was undoubtedly educated and trained for both administrative and military leadership.

The 2nd Hiatus Threat occurred in 1515 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected.

In 1509 BC, Joshua was born. He lived 110 years (1509-1399 BC), the first 45 years (1509-1464 BC) of which fell in this period.[1]

In 1508 BC, Moses (or Amenemhet IV) became co-regent with Amenhotep III and served as such for 4 years (1508-1504 BC), when he was 36-40 years old. He may have commanded the Egyptian army.

In 1504 BC, Moses killed an Egyptian and then fled to Midian, an area in southwest Saudi Arabia that borders the Gulf of Aqaba to the west and the Red Sea to the south.[2] There he met and married Zipporah, the daughter of Jethro, who was a priest of Midian, and tended his father-in-laws’ sheep for roughly 40 years (1504-1464 BC), when he was 40-80 years old.

In 1503 BC, Caleb was born.

In 1464 BC, God appeared to Moses in a burning bush, which was not consumed by the fire, and identified himself as the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. He said that he had heard the cries of his people, who were living in sore bondage in Egypt, and he commanded Moses to return to Egypt, assume leadership of his people,[3] and tell Pharaoh  Concharis[4] to let his people go. Moses did so. Concharis refused.

In the subsequent confrontations between Moses and Cocharis, God visited ten plagues[5] on Egypt that were caused by the tail of the comet Venus which preceded the main body as it flew toward the earth. Despite the damage to Egypt, Concharis continued refusing to let the Hebrews go until the 10th plague arrived.

The 10th plague consisted of the death of the first-born of the Egyptian families, but not the first-born of the Hebrew families, who were protected by the blood of the innocent lambs that, in accordance with God’s instructions, had been painted on the doorposts of their homes. Concharis relented and told the Hebrews that they could leave Egypt. Moses assembled his people into a great caravan and then led them across the top of the Red Sea, down the southwest coast of the Sinai Peninsula to Pi-Ha-Kiroth, the western landfall of the Strait of Tiran. During their journey, the comet arrived.

The Moses Disturbance occurred in 1464 BC, when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus intersected. As the comet approached the earth, it was on its way from perihelion. Being repelled by the sun, its tail therefore preceded it. The earth’s immersion in the tail produced the Ten Plagues of Egypt, which laid waste to the land and precipitated the Exodus of the Hebrews. The subsequent close encounters between the earth and the comet produced volcanism, hurricane winds, torrential rains, falling naphtha, electrical discharges, earthquakes, tectonic upheavals and subsidences, tsunamis, and darkness across the entire globe. All forms of terrestrial life were devastated.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
________________________________________

[1] Joshua did not lead Israel until the last 25 years (1424-1399 BC) of his life.

[2] Moses’ flight from Egypt to Midian explains why Amenemhet IV disappeared from Egyptian records and why Amenemhet IV’s tomb has never been found.

[3] Moses led the Hebrews for 40 years (1464-1414 BC), when he was 80-120 years old.

[4] The pharaoh at the time was Concharis of Egypt’s 13th Dynasty.

[5] The Ten Plagues:

1st Plague – conversion of water to blood “…all the waters that were in the river were turned to blood. And the fish that was in the river died; and the river stank, and the Egyptians could not drink of the water of the river; and there was blood throughout all the land of Egypt” (Exodus 7:20-21).

2nd Plague – infestation of frogs “…the frogs came up, and covered the land of Egypt” (Exodus 8:6).

3rd Plague – infestation of lice the dust of the earth “…became lice in man, and in beast; all the dust of the land became lice throughout all the land of Egypt” (Exodus 8:17).

4th Plague – infestation of flies “…there came a grievous swarm of flies into the house of Pharaoh, and into his servants’ houses, and into all the land of Egypt: the land was corrupted by reason of the swarm of flies” (Exodus 8:24).

5th Plague – murrain in Egyptian cattle “…all the cattle of Egypt died: but of the cattle of the children of Israel died not one” (Exodus 9:6).

6th Plague – boils on man and beast the ashes of the furnace which Moses and Aaron sprinkled into the air “…became a boil breaking forth with blains upon man and upon beast” (Exodus 9:10).

7th Plague – hail on Egyptian crops “…the LORD sent thunder and hail, and the fire ran along upon the ground; and the LORD rained hail upon the land of Egypt. So there was hail, and fire mingled with the hail, very grievous, such as there was none like it in all the land of Egypt since it became a nation. And the hail smote throughout all the land of Egypt all that was in the field, both man and beast; and the hail smote every herb of the field, and brake every tree of the field. Only in the land of Goshen, where the children of Israel were, was there no hail” (Exodus 9:23-26).

8th Plague – infestation of locusts “…the LORD brought an east wind upon the land all that day, and all that night; and when it was morning, the east wind brought the locusts. And the locusts went up over all the land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of Egypt: very grievous were they; before them there were no such locusts as they, neither after them shall be such. For they covered the face of the whole earth, so that the land was darkened; and they did eat every herb of the land, and all the fruit of the trees which the hail had left: and there remained not any green thing in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, through all the land of Egypt” (Exodus 10:13-15).

9th Plague – darkness “…there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days: They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings” (Exodus 10:22-23).

10th Plague – death of the Egyptian firstborn “…it came to pass, that at midnight the LORD smote all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the captive that was in the dungeon; and all the firstborn of cattle. And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, and all his servants, and all the Egyptians; and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there was not a house where there was not one dead” (Exodus 12:29-30).

 

 

Timeline 3A – Chinese in the Postdiluvian Era’s early phase

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted July 31, 2017

On June 19, 2017, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below.

                                              GENERIC TIMELINES
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 3 – THE POSTDILUVIAN WORLD (2321-1464 BC)—
—Phase 3A of the Postdiluvian World (2321-1464 BC)—
—Period 3A(1) – Initial Settlement & Migrations (2321-2221 BC)—

China’s 1st Dynasty (C01) – The San-huang Wu Tui

The four emperors of the San-huang Wu Tui during this period were Nuwa (C01-01), Youchao (C01-02), Suiren (C01-03), and Fu Xi (C01-04).

The first three men probably were not rulers. First, all three were given fantastic ages. Second, Noah and his sons probably remained in the initial settlement in eastern Tadzikistan. Their appearance in the king lists of China, however, is not surprising. All of the Ark’s passengers would have been revered by all peoples, regardless of where they were, and the Chinese people included the names of these legendary figures in their historical records to preserve the memory of their origins. Thus, I surmise that they were included in the list in order to trace China’s royal line back to mankind’s new progenitor, Noah.

If I am right here, the leader of the migration into China was probably the fourth emperor Fu Xi, a grandson or great-grandson of Noah. As in Mesopotamia, he probably did not arrive in China until roughly 70 years after the Flood in 2321 BC – i.e. 2251 BC.

Thus there appears to be two benchmarks here: (1) the start of  Fu Xi’s reign c. 2251 BC and (2) the cataclysm that occurred roughly 15 years prior to the end of Yao’s reign. Regarding this cataclysm, Velikovsky wrote that an immense catastrophe struck China and separated (a) its almost obliterated and somewhat legendary past and (b) the succeeding, semi-historical period. The sun did not set for ten days. The forests were ignited and burned. The heat brought forth multitudes of vicious vermin. An immense wave “that reached the sky” fell on the high mountains and buried the lowlands completely. The waters were caught in the valleys between the mountains, and their outflow produced a continuing flood in the lowlands that lasted for decades. Apparently the cataclysm also rendered the previous calendar obsolete.

The identity of the cataclysm that occurred in Yao’s day, however, is not easy to determine. There are two main possibilities:

The Abraham Disturbance in 1870 BC [1] which terminated Phase 3A – The Early Postdiluvian World (=the Silver Age of the Ancients) might also have caused the flood in China.[2] Pro this possibility: The last nine rulers of the San-huang Wu Tuiwould fit quite comfortably into Phase 3A-The Early Postdiluvian World (=the Silver Age). Omitting the first three rulers, the length of time from the beginning of Fu Xi’s reign in 2251 BC to the beginning of Yao’s reign in 1954 BC was 297 years. That results in an average reign of 42.43 years (297 years ÷ 7 rulers) – a reasonable possibility during an era of unusual longevity in human ages. Con this possibility: The consequences of the cataclysm would have been quite different in different areas – explosions and tectonic upheavals in the Middle East and flooding waters in the Far East, although the former would have spawned enormous tsunamis in the world’s oceans.

The Moses Disturbance in 1464 BC[3] which terminated Phase 3B-The Late Postdiluvian World (=the Bronze Age of the Ancients) might also have caused the flood in China. Pro this possibility: The consequences of the cataclysm in Yao’s day are similar or reciprocal to the consequences of the cataclysm in Moses’s day and thus led Velikovsky to identify it as such. The ten-day period of light in the Far East correlates with the extended period of darkness in the Middle East. The ignition and burning of the forests happened in both places. Titanic waves and flooding occurred in both places. Also, the rendering of the calendar obsolete also occurred in both places. Con this possibility: The fourth through twelfth rulers of the San-huang Wu Tui[4] would have reigned for about 787 years (2251-1464 BC), and the average length of their reigns would have 87 years – still reasonable possibilities during an era of unusual longevity in human ages – but the chronologist would be left with the question of how to fit the Zia Dynasty (C02), the Shang Dynasty (C03), and the Zhou Dynasty (C04) into the next 799 years.

I opt for identifying the cataclysm in Yao’s day with Abraham Disturbance in 1870 BC, which terminated the Early Postdiluvian World (=the Silver Age of the Ancients). Thus, the sole emperor of the San-huang Wu Tui during this period was:

Fu Xi (C01-04) – He ruled China for roughly 42 years (2251-2209 BC), the first 30 years (2251-2221 BC) of which fell in this period

 The Peleg Disturbance occurred in 2221 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a tectonic upheaval broke up the earth’s single land mass (Pangrea) into the continents and major islands that exist today – an event which the Hebrews called “the Division of the Land.”

 —Period 3A(2) – Rise of Babylon (2221-2070 BC)—

 China’s 1st Dynasty (C01) continued

The emperors of the San-huang Wu Tui continued throughout this period. I have no idea how long each of them reigned. I am assigning an average of 42-43 years to each of them in order to get each of them close to the time within the period when they actually reigned.

Fu Xi (C01-04) – He ruled roughly 42 years (2251-2166 BC), the last 12 years (2221-2209 BC) of which fell in this period.

Yan Emperor (C01-05) – He was also known as Shennong. He ruled China for roughly 43 years (2209-2166 BC).

Yellow Emperor (C01-06) – He was also known as Gongsun Xuanyuan. He ruled China for roughly 42 years (2166-2124 BC).

Shaohao (C01-07) – He was also known as Jin Tian. He ruled China for roughly 43 years (2124-2081 BC).

Zhuanxu (C01-08) – He was also known as Gaoyang. He ruled China for roughly 42 years (2081-2039 BC), the first 11 years (2081-2070 BC) of which fell in this period.

The Terah Disturbance occurred in 2070 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies confounded the Babylonians – or possibly all of mankind’s – ability to communicate in a single language, destroyed the Tower of Babel, and devastated much of the surrounding region.

— Period A(3) – Rise of Civilizations (2070-1870 BC)—

China’s 1st Dynasty (C01) continued

The emperors of the San-huang Wu Tui continued to rule China throughout this period. I have no idea how long each of them reigned. I am assigning an average of 42/43 years to each of them in order to get each of them close to the time within the period when they actually reigned.

 Zhuanxu (C01-08) – He was also known as Gaoyang. He ruled China for roughly 42 years (2081-2039 BC), the last 31 years (2070-2039 BC) of which fell in this period.

Ku (C01-09) – He was also known as Gaoxin. He ruled China for roughly 43 years (2039-1996 BC).

The 1st Terah Threat occurred in 2020 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Zhi (C01-10) – He was also known as Qingwang-shi. He ruled China for roughly 42 years (1996-1954 BC).

The 2nd Terah Threat occurred in 1970 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

The 3rd Terah Threat occurred in 1920 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Yao (C01-11) – He was also known as Yaotang-shi. He ruled China for roughly 99 years (1954-1855 BC). During his reign, China experienced a cataclysm about 15 years prior to his abdication. Thus, Yao’s reign was divided into (a) his pre-cataclysm period, which lasted 84 years (1954-1870 BC), and (b) his post-cataclysm period, which lasted 15 years (1870-1855 BC).  

The Abraham Disturbance occurred 1870 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected and a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah and much of the surrounding region and a titanic earthquake created the Great African Rift or its greater expansion, thereby eliminating the Vale of Siddim and creating the Dead Sea.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
________________________________________

[1] This cataclysm destroyed the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah and the Vale of Siddim in the Middle East and caused the Great African Rift or its greater expansion.

[2] The worst of the global cataclysms produced tsunamis that rolled inland. In eastern Asia, the waters may have been trapped in large basins in the Chinese and Mongolian highlands and taken decades to pour out through the Chinese lowlands.

[3] This cataclysm terminated the Middle Kingdom of Egypt and precipitated the Exodus of the Jews.

[4] These nine rulers were Fu Xi (C01-04), Yan Emperor or Shennong (C01-05), Yellow Emperor or Gongsun Xuanyuan (C01-06), (d) Shaohao or Jin Tian (C01-07), Zhuanxu or Gaoyang) (C01-08), Ku or Gaoxin (C01-09), Zhi or Qingwang-shi (C01-10), and Yao or Yaotang-shi (C01-12).

Timeline 3A – Egyptians in the Postdiluvian Era’s early phase

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted July 24, 2017

On June 19, 2017, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below.

GENERIC TIMELINES:
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 3 – THE POSTDILUVIAN WORLD (2321-1464 BC)—
—Phase 3A – The Early Postdiluvian World (2321-1870 BC)—
—Period 3A(1) – Initial Settlement & Migrations (2321-2221 BC)—

Egypt’s Predynastic Hegemony (EPH)

The rulers of Egypt’s Predynastic Hegemony (EPH) were actually the kings of Babylon’s 1st Dynasty (B1). They ruled Egypt during this period. They were known as

Ukusi (EPH-01 = B1-01) – He was also known as Puru I, Ikshavu, and Cush. He ruled Egypt for 72 years (2298-2226 BC).

Khetm (EPH-02 = B1-03) and Ro (EPH-03) – He was also known as Puru II and Puru-in – Khetm was Ukusi’s son; Ro was Ketm’s son. They ruled Egypt for 40 years (2226-2186 BC), the first 5 years (2226-2221 BC) of which fell in this period.

The Peleg Disturbance occurred in 2221 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a tectonic upheaval broke up the earth’s single land mass (Pangrea) into the continents and major islands that exist today – an event which the Hebrews called “the Division of the Land.”

 —Period 3A(2) – Rise of Babylon (2221-2070 BC)—

Egypt’s Pre-Dynastic Hegemony (EPH) continued

The rulers of Egypt’s Pre-dynastic (EPH) Hegemony were the kings of Babylon’s 1st Dynasty (B1). They continued ruling Egypt for the first 82 years (2221-2139 BC) of this period. They were known as

Khetm (EPH-02) – He was also known as Dukh, Tukh, and Vri-taka. He was Ukusi’s son. He ruled Northern/Lower Egypt for 7 years (2226-2219 BC), the last 2 years (2221-2219 BC) of which fell in this period.

Ro (EPH-03) – He was also known as Puru II and Puru-in – He was Khetm’s son. He ruled Northern/Lower Egypt for 33 years (2219-2186 BC).

Ka-ap (EPH-04) – He was also known as Sargon, Sharguni, and Guni. He ruled Northern/Lower Egypt for 20 years (2186-2166 BC), at the end of which he turned the throne over to his son Menes.

Menes (EPH-05) – He was also known as Aha-manj, Asa-manja, Manasyu, and Mannis-tussu – He was Ka-ap’s son. He ruled Norther/Lower Egypt for 27 years (2166-2139 BC). He unified Egypt in 2139 BC and established Egypt’s 1st Dynasty.

Egypt’s 1st Dynasty (E01)

The rulers of Egypt’s 1st Dynasty (E01) were also kings of Babylonia. They were known in Egypt as pharaohs. They ruled Egypt for the last 69 years (2139-2070 BC) of this period

Menes (E01-01) (SL #01) – He was also known as Aha-men and Hor-aha in Egypt, as Mannis-tusu (B1-08) in Babylon, and as Aha-manj, Asa-manja, and Manasyu in the Indus Valley. He was Ka-Ap’s son and Rumish’s younger brother. He ruled a unified Egypt for 35 years (2139-2104 BC), the first 8 years (2139-2131 BC) under his father Sargon, the next 12 years (2131-2119 BC) under his brother Rimush, and the last 15 years (2119 BC) as sole ruler of the Babylonian Empire, which included Egypt. He was a mighty warrior. He died of a bee sting while in the British Isles.

(E1-02) Kourodes (SL #02) – He was Menes’s son. He was also known as Athothis I, Djer, Kourodes, and Zer-ta in Egypt and Naram-sin (B1-09) in Babylon. He ruled Egypt for 63 years (2104-2041 BC), the first 34 years (2104-2070 BC) of which fell in this period. During these last 34 years, Egypt was unified and peaceful.

The Terah Disturbance occurred in 2070 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies confounded the Babylonians – or possibly all of mankind’s – ability to communicate in a single language, destroyed the Tower of Babel, and devastated much of the surrounding region.

— Period A(3) – Rise of Civilizations (2070-1870 BC)—

Egypt’s 1st Dynasty (E01) continued

(E01-02) Kourodes (SL #02) – He was Menes’ son. He was also known as Athothis I, Djer, Kourodes, Naram-sin, and Zer-ta. He ruled Egypt for 63 years (2104-2041 BC), the last 35 years (2070-2041 BC) of which fell in this period. These 35 years were a time of turmoil and division in Egypt, a consequence of the cataclysm in 2070 BC that destroyed the Tower of Babylon and confounded the people’s ability to communicate. During the last 6 years (2047-2041 BC) of his reign, Kourodes was his co-regent.

(E01-03) Kenkenes (omitted from SL) – He was also known as Sekhemka, Zet-ata, and probably Athosis II. He ruled Memphis under Kourodes for 6 years (2047-2041), unified Egypt in 2041 BC, and then ruled Egypt for 33 years (2041-2008 BC) as the third pharaoh of the Egypt’s 1st Dynasty (E01) (see above) and the first pharaoh of Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty (E03) (see below).

The 1st Terah Threat occurred in 2020 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Aristarchus (E01-04) (SL #03) – He was also known as Necherophes, Uadji, and Uenephes. He ruled Egypt for 35 years (2008-1973 BC).

Spanios (SL #04) – He was also known as Dudu, Udimu, and Usaphaidos. He was co-regent during the last 20 years (1993-1973 BC) of Aritarchus’s reign, but never reigned as pharaoh.

Miebedos (E01-05) (numbered SL #05, but not named) – He was also known as Miabes. He ruled Egypt for 72 years (1973-1901 BC).

The 2nd Terah Threat occurred in 1970 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Sempses – He was also known as Sephuris. He was Miebedos’s co-regent for 30-year (1964-1934 BC), but never reigned as pharaoh.

Bieneches – He was also known as Kerpheres, and Snefru. He was Miebedos’s co-regent for 33 years (1934-1901 BC), but never reigned as pharaoh.

The 3rd Terah Threat occurred in 1920 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty (E03)

Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty (E03) lasted 140 years (2041-1901 BC).

Sekhemka (E3-01) – He was also known as Ka-Sekhem, Ka-Sekhemui, Kenkenes, and Zet-ata. He ruled Memphis/Sakkara for 6 years (2047-2041 BC) under (E1-02) Kourodes and then unified Egypt. He established Egypt’s 3rd Dynasty (E03) in Memphis/Sakkara, but also became the fourth pharaoh of Egypt’s 1st Dynasty. He ruled all Egypt for 24 years (2041-2015 BC) (see Kenkenes above).

Necherophes (E3-02) – He was also known as Aristarchus, Uadji, and Uenephes. He was co-regent with Sekhemka for 8 years (2023-2015 BC), ruled all Egypt for 22 years (2015-1993 BC), and finally ruled just Memphis/Sakkara again for 6 years (1993-1987 BC). During these last 6 years of his reign, Zoser was his co-regent. See Aristarchus above.

Zoser (E3-03) – He was also known as Djoser. He was co-regent with Necherophes for 6 years (1993-1987 BC) and then ruled Memphis/Sakkara for 23 years (1987-1964 BC). His 29 years of co-regency and reign were coincident with all 20 years (1993-1973 BC) of Spanios’s co-regency with Artistarchus (E01-04) and the first 9 years (1973-1964 BC) of Miebedos (E01-05)’s reign.

Sephuris (E3-04) – He was also known as Sempses. He ruled Memphis/Sakkara for 63 years (1964-1901 BC). During the last 33 years (1929-1901 BC) of his reign, Kerpheres, who was also known as Bieneches and Snefru, was his co-regent.

 Egypt’s 4th Dynasty (E04)

Egypt’s 4th Dynasty (E04) succeeded Egypt’s 1st and 3rd Dynasties and lasted 101 years (1901-1800 BC), the first 31 years (1901-1870 BC) occurred in this period.

Osirophus (E04-01) (SL #07) – He was also known as Cheops, Khufu, and Sufi I. He established the Egypt’s 4th Dynasty and ruled Egypt for 23 years (1901-1878 BC).

Circa 1893 BC, Osirophus hosted Abraham, who had left Ur of the Chaldees and traveled first to Haran, then to Canaan, and finally to Egypt. He took a shine to Abraham’s half-sister and wife Sarah.

Osirophus is credited with building the largest of the pyramids at Giza, which has earned it the title “the Great Pyramid. It is one of the wonders of the ancient world and has engendered much speculation concerning its purpose, the manner of its construction, and whether or not the form and dimensions of its structure carry information concerning the past and the future of mankind. There are two facts concerning the Great Pyramid that are worth mentioning here.

The pyramid’s capstone is missing and the sarcophagus in the king’s chamber is empty. Archaeologists assume (a) that the capstone was the victim of either erosion or theft, along with much of the pyramid’s exterior sheathing, and (b) that the sarcophagus was emptied by thieves. Both are possible and reasonable explanations. On the other hand, the capstone may have been omitted for a reason and the sarcophagus may never have been full. The phrase ‘the stone which the builders rejected has become the head of the corner’ appears five times in the scriptures (Matthew 21:42, Mark 12:10, Luke 20:17, Acts 4:11, and 1 Peter 2:7) and there are many references in Scriptures to the sepulcher in which Jesus was laid being empty on the Sunday morning following the Friday on which he was laid to rest. Is it possible that, while he was a guest of Osirophus, Abraham shared with the pharaoh some details of the vision of the future which had been entrusted to him by God?

The pyramid’s peculiar interior design indicates that it might have served as a power plant. Archaeologists cannot assess anything here; they lack the necessary technical expertise. In his book, on the Great Pyramid,[1] the engineer Christopher Dunn, who has a great deal of experience in designing and building manufacturing tools, demonstrates with reverse engineering that the Great Pyramid might have been a power plant using harmonic resonance. Moreover, in his book concerning the sculptures at Luxor and Karnak,[2] dating from a period 2,000 years later in Egyptian history, he demonstrates that computer driven tools were necessary to create many of the temple figures that adorn the temples in these places. For example, the perfectly symmetrical facial features of Ramses II cannot have been produced with hammer and chisel. What the evidence of sophisticated technology in Egypt circa 1880 BC, less than 450 years after the Flood, suggests to me is that some of the scientific and technological knowledge developed in the Antediluvian Era was carried on the Ark and survived the Flood.

(E04-02) Sepchris (SL #08) – He was also known as Chephren, Kafre, and Sufi II. He ruled Egypt for 49 years (1878-1829 BC), the first 8 years (1878-1870 BC) of which fell in this period. He is credited with building the 2nd largest pyramid at Giza.

The Abraham Disturbance occurred 1870 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected and a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah and much of the surrounding region and a titanic earthquake created the Great African Rift or its greater expansion, thereby eliminating the Vale of Siddim and creating the Dead Sea.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
________________________________________

[1] Christopher Dunn’s The Giza Power Plant, Bear & Company, Rochester VT, 1998.

[2] Christopher Dunn’s Lost Technologies of Ancient Egypt, Bear & Company, Rochester VT, 2010.

Timeline 3A – Babylonians in the Postdiluvian World’s early phase

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted July 17, 2017

On June 19, 2017, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below.

                                              GENERIC TIMELINES
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 3 – THE POSTDILUVIAN WORLD (2321-1464 BC)—
—Phase 3A – – The Early Postdiluvian World (2321-1870 BC)—
—Period 3A(1) – Initial Settlement & Migrations (2321-2221 BC)—

Babylonian History (2321-2221 BC)

The kings of Babylon’s Dynasty 1 (B-1) that ruled during this period were the following:

Unrecorded period lasted 23 years (2321-2298 BC).

Ukusi (B1-01)– He was also known as Puru I, Ikshavu, and Cush (12th gen). He was Ham’s son and Noah’s grandson. He is credited with ruling Babylonia for 30 years (2298-2268 BC). A portion of this time, however, may have been taken up with migration. In fact, the Babylonian Empire was founded by Ukusi’s son Azag.

Azag (B1-02) – He was also known as Nimrod (13th gen). He was Ukusi’s son, Ham’s grandson, and Noah’s great-grandson. He ruled Babylonia for 42 years (2268-2226 BC). He was a mighty hunter. He was also an empire builder, for he built the cities of Akkad, Babylon, Erech, and Calneh, and he undoubtedly initiated Babylonia’s territorial expansion. His wife may have been Semiramus, to whom various legends accord a relationship with Nimrod, a reign of 42 years, and a city-building career similar to that of Nimrod. Both are associated with claims of divinity.

Khetm (B1-03) – He was also known as Dukh and Vri-Taka. He was Azag’s brother, Ukusi’s son, Cush’s grandson, and Noah’s great-grandson. He ruled Babylonia for, I estimate, 7 years (2226-2219 BC), the first 5 years (2226-2221 BC) of which fell in this period.

 The Peleg Disturbance occurred in 2221 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a tectonic upheaval broke up the earth’s single land mass (Pangrea) into the continents and major islands that exist today – an event which the Hebrews called “the Division of the Land.”

—Period 3A(2) – Rise of Babylon (2221-2070 BC)—

Babylon’s 1st Dynasty (B1) continued

The kings of Babylon’s 1st Dynasty (B1) continued ruling Babylon during this period.

Khetm (B1-03) – He was also known as Dukh, Tukh, and Vri-taka. He ruled Babylonia for, I estimate, 7 years (2226-2219 BC), the last 2 years (2221-2219 BC) of which fell in this period.

Circa 2219-2211 BC – (B1-04) Puru II – He was Khetm’s son. He was also known as Puru-in and Ro. He ruled Babylonia for, I estimate, 8 years (2219-2211 BC).

Zagissi (B1-05) – He usurped the throne. He ruled Babylon for 25 years (2211-2186 BC).

Sargon (B1-06) – He was also known as Guni and Sharguni in Babylon and Ka-ap in Egypt. He ruled Babylonia for 55 years (2186-2131 BC). He seized the throne from Zagissi and commenced building an empire that, at its peak, extended from the Indus Valley in the east to the British Isles in the west. The primary force behind the expansion of this empire was Sargon’s second son, Mannis-tussu, who was also known as Aha-men, Hor-aha, and Menes in Egypt. He was one of history’s greatest military leaders. Initially Sargon dispatched Mannis-tusu eastward at the head of an army to extend Babylonian rule into the Indus Valley. After a successful campaign and a triumphal return to Babylon, Sargon sent him southward in 2166 BC to solidify Babylonian rule in Egypt, where he unified the land in 2139 BC and then governed it under his father for 8 years (2139-2131 BC) and under his brother Rimush for 12 years (2131-2119 BC) as the first pharaoh of Egypt’s 1st Dynasty (E01).

Rimush (B1-07) – He was also known as Mush. He was Sargon’s eldest son. After his father’s death, he ruled Babylonia for 12 years (2131-2119 BC). When he died, he was succeeded by his younger brother, Mannis-tusu, who was also ruling Egypt at the time.

Mannis-tusu (B1-08) – He was also known as Aha-men, Hor-aha, and Menes in Egypt and Aha-manj, Asa-manja, and Manasyu in the Indus Valley. He was Rimush’s younger brother and Sargon’s second son. After his brother’s death, he ruled both Babylonia and Egypt for 15 years (2119-2104 BC). During this time, he conducted at least one military campaign to the west as far as the British Isles, where he seized its tin mines and died from a bee sting.

Naram-sin (B1-09) – He was also known as Athothis I, Djer, Kourodes, Narmer, and Zer-ta in Egypt. He was Mannis-tusu’s son and Sargon’s grandson. He ruled Babylonia for 57 years (2104-2047 BC), the first 34 years (2104-2070 BC) of which fell in this period. Babylon was powerful and prosperous at this time, and he was probably the monarch who undertook to build a tower to heaven in order to give Babylon a mighty reputation. The tower was destroyed in his regnal year 34.

The Terah Disturbance occurred in 2070 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies confounded the Babylonians – or possibly all of mankind’s – ability to communicate in a single language, destroyed the Tower of Babel, and devastated much of the surrounding region.

— Period A(3) – Rise of Civilizations (2070-1870 BC)—

Babylon’s 1st Dynasty (B1) continued

The kings of Babylon’s 1st Dynasty (B1) continued to rule Babylon into this period, but the empire went into a steep decline following th devastation wrought by the Terah Disturbance.

Naram-sin (B1-09) continued – He was also known as Athothis I, Djer, Kourodes, Narmer, and Zer-ta in Egypt. He ruled Babylonia for 57 years (2104-2047 BC), the last 23 years (2070-2047 BC) of which fell in this period. These 23 years were a time of chaos and confusion. Although Naram-sin continued to rule in Egypt until 2041 BC, he lost control of Babylonia in 2047 BC.

I am uncertain of the sequence of kings in Babylonia after 2047BC.

Sharguni-Eri (B-10) – He was also known as Gani-Eri and perhaps Sharkalisharri. He ruled Babylonia for an indeterminate length of time.

The 1st Terah Threat occurred in 2020 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Dudu (B-11) – He was also known as Dudu, Spanios, Udimu, and Usaphaidos in Egypt, where he was a co-regent with Aristarchus for 20 years (1993-1973 BC). He ruled Babylonia for a while, but the dates of his rule there are not known.

Shudur-Kib (B-12) – He may also have been known as Shu-Turul. He too ruled Bablylonia for a while, but the dates of his rule are not known. After it, the history of early Babylonia peters out.

The 2nd Terah Threat occurred in 1970 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

The 3rd Terah Threat occurred in 1920 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

The Abraham Disturbance occurred 1870 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected and a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah and much of the surrounding region and a titanic earthquake created the Great African Rift or its greater expansion, thereby eliminating the Vale of Siddim and creating the Dead Sea.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
________________________________________

 

Timeline 3A – Hebrews in the Postdiluvian Era’s early phase

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted July 10, 2017

On June 19, 2017, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below.

                                        GENERIC TIMELINES
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 3 – THE POSTDILUVIAN WORLD (2321-1464 BC)—
—Phase 3A of the Postdiluvian World—
—Period 3A(1) – Initial Settlement & Migrations (2321-2221 BC)—

Noah (AP10, gen 10) – He led mankind for 350 years (2321-1971 BC), after which he died. Although he was mankind’s titular leader until 1971 BC and undoubtedly led all mankind during the establishment of the initial settlement in the vicinity of the Ark’s landfall, as migrations occurred, leadership of the departing groups passed to the senior person in each group, who would have been a son, grandson, or perhaps even great-grandson of Noah. As time passed, Noah and his sons undoubtedly took on the aura of legend. During the years of Noah’s leadership occurred the following:

Arphaxad (AP12, gen 12), a son of Shem, was born in 2319 BC.

Cush (gen 12), the first son of Ham and a first cousin of Arphaxad, was born circa 2319 BC. He was also known as Ishvaku, Puru II, and Ukusi in Mesopotamia.

Mizraim (gen 12), the second son of Ham, was born shortly after Cush. He may have been one of the early settlers in Egypt.

Nimrod (gen 13), a son of Cush, was born shortly before his second cousin Selah, say circa 2299 BC. He was also known as Azag in Babylon.

Selah (AP13, gen 13), a son of Arphaxad, was born in 2284 BC.

Eber (AP14, gen 14), a son of Selah, was born in 2254 BC.

The Peleg Disturbance occurred in 2221 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a tectonic upheaval broke up the earth’s single land mass (Pangrea) into the continents and major islands that exist today – an event which the Hebrews called “the Division of the Land.”

 —Period 3A(2) – Rise of Babylon (2221-2070 BC)—

Peleg (AP15, gen 15), a son of Eber, was born in 2220 BC.

Reu (AP16, gen 16), a son of Peleg, was born in 2190 BC.

Serug (AP17, gen 17), a son of Reu, was born in 2158 BC.

Nahor (AP18, gen 18), a son of Serug, was born in 2128 BC.

Terah (AP19, gen 19), a son of Nahor, was born in 2099 BC.

The Terah Disturbance occurred in 2070 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected. Probably a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies confounded the Babylonians – or possibly all of mankind’s – ability to communicate in a single language, destroyed the Tower of Babel, and devastated much of the surrounding region.

 — Period A(3) – Rise of Civilizations (2070-1870 BC)—

Haran (gen 20), the oldest son of Terah, was born in Ur-of-the-Chaldees in 2029 BC.

Noah died in 1971 BC.

The 1st Terah Threat occurred in 2020 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Terah (HP19, gen 19) – After Noah died, Terah led mankind for 77 years (1971-1894 BC), after which he died. During these years occurred the following:

The 2nd Terah Threat occurred in 1970 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

Abram (AP20, gen 20), a son of Terah, was born in 1969 BC, probably in Ur-of-the-Chaldees.

Sarai, a daughter of Abram’s mother and thus a half-sister of Abram, was born in 1960 BC, probably in Ur-of-the-Chaldees.

Abram and Sarai were married, probably between 1945-1935 BC and probably in Ur-of-the-Chaldees.

Haran died in Ur-of-the-Chaldees.

The 3rd Terah Threat occurred in 1920 BC, possibly when the orbits of the comet Venus and the earth nearly intersected.

God spoke to Abram in 1894 BC. First, he issued a Command to Abram that Abram leave Ur-of-the-Chaldees and travel to a land that God would show him. Second, he made a Promise to – or Covenant with – Abram that Abram would sire a great nation. After hearing about the Command and Promise, Terah led his family or tribe out of Ur-of-the-Chaldees to Haran, where he died.

Abram (HP[1]20, gen 20) – After Terah died, Abram led the Hebrews for the last 24 years (1894-1870 BC) of this period. During these years occurred the following:

In 1894 BC, upon entering Canaan, Abram traveled through Sichem to the Plain of Moreh, where he camped for an unspecified time. There God visited Abram and issued his first promise of the land of Canaan to Abram and his descendants. Abram built an altar on the Plain of Morel to commemorate God’s visit. Abram then traveled to a mountain between Hai on the east and Bethel on the west, where he camped and built another altar.

Circa 1893 BC, Abram led his family out of Canaan, where they were suffering a famine, and south into Egypt.[2] The pharaoh of Egypt at the time was Osirophus, who was also known as Cheops. When Osirophus saw Sarah, he desired her and asked Abraham to relinquish her, which Abraham did. After taking Sarah into his harem, Osirophus treated Abraham well, giving him servants, cattle, and probably other gifts. Thereafter Abraham and Osirophus undoubtedly spent much time together talking, and Osirophus undoubtedly showed Abraham the pyramid that he was building.[3] Because Osirophus had taken Sarah into his harem, the Lord visited great plagues upon pharaoh and his house, which caused Osirophus to return Sarai to Abram and then to expel them from Egypt.

Abram and his nephew Lot traveled north into Canaan to a place between Bethel and Hai, where Abraham had previously built an altar. There Abram “called on the name of the LORD.” [4] The significance of Abraham’s using the name LORD is that LORD is the name which God-the-Father gave to God-the-Son.

Because the extent of their herds and flocks was greater than the land could sustain, Abraham and his nephew Lot parted company, with Abraham staying in Canaan and Lot moving east into the Plain of Jordan, through which ran the Jordan River.[5] He crossed the Jordan and camped near Sodom.

An alliance of Mesopotamian kings led by Chedorlaomer, king of Elam (Persia), swept down into the area, defeated an alliance of the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Zeboiim, Adnah, and Zoar, and then headed back to Mesopotamia with many captives and much booty, including Lot and all his people and possessions.

Upon hearing of Lot’s fate, Abram with a force of his own men and some Amorite friends pursued the Mesopotamians to Dan (Baalbecl), where he attacked, routed, and slaughtered them.

Abram then traveled to the valley of Shevah, where he met the King of Sodom. There Melchizedek, King of Salem, “priest of the most high God,” brought forth bread and wine, blessed them, and then blessed “Abram of the most high God.” [6] Then Abram gave to Melchizedek, a tithe of all the goods that he had taken from Chedorlaomer, to his allies, their portion of the spoils of war, and to the king of Sodom, all the rest, because he did not want it said that the king of Sodom had made him rich.[7]

After the above events, God spoke to Abram in a vision, repeating all his previous promises and also warning him that his descendants would live and be afflicted in a strange land for 400 years.

Ishmael, a son of Abram by Hagar, a maid of Sarai, was born in 1883 BC.  .

God confirmed his previous Promise – or Covenant – with Abram in 1870 BC by instituting the 1st Abrahamic Covenant (of Election). At the same time he changed Abram’s name to Abraham and Sarai’s name to Sarah.

The Abraham Disturbance occurred 1870 BC, possibly when the orbits of the earth and the comet Venus nearly intersected and a titanic electric discharge between the two bodies destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah and much of the surrounding region and a titanic earthquake created the Great African Rift or its greater expansion, thereby eliminating the Vale of Siddim and creating the Dead Sea.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
________________________________________

[1] HP = Hebrew Patriarch. Abram’s nineteen predecessors (Adam to Terah) were Ancient Patriarchs (AP). For the first 75 years of his life, Abram was AP-20. When he crossed the Euphrates with his family, however, he became the first Hebrew Patriarch (HP01) and God would soon changed his name to Abraham.

[2] Genesis 12:10.

[3] Genesis 12:14-16.

[4] Genesis 13:3-4.

[5] Genesis 13:6-11.

[6] Just who was Melchizedek, King of Salem, “priest of the most high God?” The author of Hebrews identifies this person as “…the King of Righteousness, and after that also King of Salem, which is, King of Peace; without father, without mother, without descent, having neither beginning of days, nor end of life; but made like unto the Son of God” (Hebrews 2-3), with whom Jesus shares the same order of priesthood (Hebrews 6:20). The clear implication of these verses is that Melchizedek and Jesus are one and the same person.

[7] Genesis 14:16-23.

 

Timeline 2 – Mankind in the Antediluvian Era

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted July 3, 2017

On June 19, 2017, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below. 

                                             GENERIC TIMELINES
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 2 – THE ANTEDILUVIAN WORLD (3977-2321 BC)—

Although we don’t much about the Antediluvian Era, because the world was utterly destroyed by the Flood in 2321 BC, we do known some things about it, mostly from the ancient Hebrew Scriptures, but also from the early Babylonian records. The list of the first ten patriarchs in the Bible, which I call Ancient Patriarchs (AP)[1] and the list of the ten Babylonian Demigods[2] are remarkably similar and, I believe, refer to the same ten people.

Adam (AP-01, gen 1) – He led mankind for 930 years (3977-3047 BC).

Cain (gen 2), the oldest son of Adam (AP-01), was born. He became the first farmer.

Abel (gen 2), another son of Adam, was born. He became the first rancher.

Cain committed the first murderer; he killed his brother Abel.

Cain built the first city.

 Seth (AP-02, gen 2), another son of Adam, was born in 3847 BC.

Enos (AP-03, gen 3), a son of Seth, was born in 3742 BC. He was probably the first person among many to call on the name of the LORD.[3]

Cainan (AP-04, gen 4), a son of Enos, was born in 3652 BC.

Mahalaleel (AP-05, gen 5), a son of Cainan, was born in 3582 BC.

 Jared (AP-06, gen 6), a son of Mahalaleel, was born in 3517 BC

Enoch (AP-07, gen 7), a son of Jared, was born in 3355 BC. He walked with God.

Lamech (gen 7) a great-great-grandson of Cain, was a contemporary of Enoch.

Methuselah (AP-08, gen 8), a son of Enoch, was born in 3290 BC.

Jabal, Jubal, and Tubal-cain (gen 8), sons of Lamech and great-great-great-grandsons of Cain, were contemporaries of Methuselah. Jabal was “the father of such as dwell in tents” (Genesis 4:20). Jubal was “the father of all such as handle the harp and organ” (Genesis 4:21). Tubal-cain was “an instructor in every artificer in brass and iron” (Genesis 4:22). A common interpretation of the foregoing is that Jabal was the first nomad, Jubal was the first musician, and Tubal-cain was the first metallurgist. I doubt that. By 3277 BC, mankind had existed for 500 years – plenty of time to develop the scientific and technological innovations on which a sophisticated – albeit wicked – civilization would be based.

Lamech (AP-09, gen 9), a son of Methuselah, was born in 3103 BC.

Adam (AP-01) died in 3047 BC at the age of 930 years old.

Seth (AP-02) – After Adam died, Seth led mankind for 112 years (3047-2935 BC). During these years occurred the following:

Seth (AP-02) died in 2935 BC at the age of 912 years old.

Enos (AP-03) – After Seth died, Enos led mankind for 98 years (2935-2837 BC). During these years occurred the following:

Enoch (AP-07) was translated by God in 2990 BC at the age of 365 years old.

Noah (AP-10, gen 10), a son of Lamech, was born in 2921 BC.

Enos (AP-03) died in 2837 BC at the age of 905 years old.

Cainan (AP-04) – After Enos died, Cainan led mankind for 95 years (2837-2742 BC). During these years occurred the following:

Cainan (AP-04) died in 2742 BC at the age of 910 years old.

Mahalaleel (AP-05) – After Cainan died, Mahalaleel led mankind for 55 years (2742-2687 BC). During these years occurred the following:

Mahaleel (AP-05) died in 2687 BC at the age of 895 year old.

Jared (AP-06) – After Mahalaleel died, Jared led mankind for 132 years (2687-2555 BC). During these years occurred the following:

Jared (AP-06) died in 2555 BC at the age of 962 years old.

Methuselah (AP-08) – After Jared died, Methuselah led mankind for 234 years (2555-2321 BC). During these years occurred the following:

Japheth (gen 11), the oldest son of Noah, was born circa 2421 BC.

Shem (AP-11, gen 11), the middle son of Noah, was born in 2419 BC.

Ham (gen 11), the youngest son of Noah, was born circa 2417 BC.

God spoke to Noah. He informed Noah that the earth was full of vice and violence and he intended to destroy mankind and the entire earth. He instructed Noah to build an ark with a length of 300 cubits (stem to stern), a breadth (beam) of 50 cubits, and a depth of 30 cubits (deck to keel timber), which would carry Noah, Noah’s wife, Noah’s three sons and daughters-in-law, and a pair (male and female) of every species of animals and birds.

Noah and his sons began building the Ark probably circa 2397 BC, when his sons were in their early twenties.

Lamech (AP-09), the son of Mehusaleh, died in 2326 BC.

Methuselah (AP-08) died in 2321 BC at the age of 969 years old. He lived longer than any other person in history.

In 2321 BC, the construction of the Ark was completed, its passengers boarded it, the LORD shut them in, and the flood waters commenced drowning the world that was (Genesis 7:7-16).

The Noah Disturbance occurred in 2321 BC. It was possibly caused by an encounter between the earth and a heavenly body consisting primarily of ice. The forces of gravity broke up the ice into small particles that, upon entering the vapor canopy surrounding the earth, converted the vapor to water, thereby producing torrential downpours from the sky. The forces of gravity also caused tectonic upheavals that produced profuse up-gushing of water from subterranean reservoirs deep in the earth. The resulting flood covered the land with water and drowned all men, animals, and birds with the exception of the passengers on the Ark – an event which is commonly called “Noah’s Flood.”

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
________________________________________

[1] ANCIENT PATRIARCHS (AP) (3977-1608 BC)
(AP-01) Adam, who was created – He lived 930 years (3977-3047 BC). He was known in Babylon as Alorus.
Seth (AP-02), who was Adam’s son – He lived 912 years (3847-2935 BC). He was known in Babylon as Alasparus.
Enos (AP-03), who was Seth’s son – He lived 905 years (3742-2837 BC). He was known in Babylon as Amelon.
Cainan (AP-04), who was Enos’s son – He lived 910 years (3652-2742 BC). He was known in Babylon as Amenon.
Mahalaleel (AP-05), who was Cainan’s son – He lived 895 years (3582-2687 BC). He was known in Babylon as Metalarus,
Jared (AP-06), who was Mahalaleel’s son – He lived 962 years (3517-2555 BC). He was known in Babylon as Daorus.
Enoch (AP-07), who Jared’s son – He lived 365 years (3355-2990 BC). Because he walked with God he did not die, but rather was taken or “translated” by God. He was known in Babylon as Aedorachus.
Methuselah (AP-08), who was Enoch’s son – He lived 969 years (3290-2321 BC). He was known in Babylon as Amphis.
Lamech (AP-09), who was Methuselah’s son – He lived 777 years (3103-2326 BC). He was known in Babylon as Oliartes.
Noah (AP-10), who was Lamech’s son – He lived 950 years (2921-1971 BC), the first 600 years (2927-2321 BC) of which fell in this period, when he was 1-600 years old.. He built and sailed the Ark. He was known in Babylon as Xisuthrus and in China as Nuwa and Fohi.

[2] BABYLON’S DEMI-GODS  (BD)
Alorus (BD-01) – The Hebrews called him Adam who lived 930 years (3977-3047 BC).
Alasparus (BD-02) – The Hebrews called him Seth, who lived 912 years (3847-2935 BC).
Amelon (BD-03) – The Hebrews called him Enos, lived 905 years (3742-2837 BC).
Amenon (BD-04) The Hebrews called him Cainan, who lived 910 years (3652-2742 BC).
Metalarus (BD-05) – The Hebrews called him Mahalaleel, who lived 895 years (3582-2687 BC).
Daorus (BD-06) – The Hebrews called him Jared, who lived 962 years (3517-2555 BC).
Aedorachus (BD-07) – The Hebrews called him Enoch, who lived 365 years (3355-2990 BC).
Amphis (BD-08) – The Hebrews called him Methuselah, who lived 969 years (3290-2321 BC).
Oliartes (BD-09) – The Hebrews called him Lamech, who lived 777 years (3103-2326 BC).
Xisuthrus (BD-10) – The Hebrews called him Noah, who lived 950 years (2921-1971 BC).

[3] That men “called on the name of the LORD” indicated that they perceived that the LORD (God-the-Son) was the mediator between God and men.

Timeline 1 – Mankind in the Edenic Era

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted June 26, 2017

Last week, I started a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below. 

                                               GENERIC TIMELINES
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—ERA 1 – THE EDENIC WORLD ( 3977 BC)—

The Edenic Era began with Creation in 3977 BC, lasted a brief period of time in Creation’s first year (3977-3977 BC) – probably only days or weeks, possibly more, but less than a year – and ended with the Expulsion in 3977 BC.

The Terrestrial Environment

During the Edenic Era, the earth’s surface consisted of a single land mass surrounded by water and the earth’s climate was tropical.[1]

Life in the Garden

Initially Adam and Eve lived an idyllic life in the Garden of Eden, where God actually fellowshipped with them as they walked in the cool of the evening. They enjoyed almost complete freedom; it was limited solely by God’s proscription that they not eat the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.

 The Seduction of Eve

The Seduction of Eve is described in Genesis 3:1-6a, which reads as follows:

Now the serpent was more subtil than any beast of the field which the LORD God had made. And he said unto the woman, Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden? And the woman said unto the serpent, We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil. And when the woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise, she took of the fruit thereof, and did eat,

Adam and Eve were living in the garden in harmony with God when the Serpent set out to foster rebellion against God. His target, of course, was Adam, the first man and the head of the family.[2] Because the Serpent is very subtle and clever, however, he approached Eve.

Eve engaged in a conversation with the Serpent – probably without Adam being present (as we shall see in the next section, his presence or absence is not clear from the text).  In doing so, she rejected both his authority and his protection. In her pride, she believed that she did not need her husband’s covering and mediation, that she could handle the Serpent on her own. That was the first step in mankind’s rebellion against God.

Now, rebellion always involves tinkering with the Word of God.

First, the Serpent questioned what God had said: “Yea, hath God said…?” Indeed, God had said in this case.

Second, the Serpent changed what God had said: The Serpent stated, “…God said, ‘Ye shall not eat of every tree in the garden?’” That is not what God said! He said that Adam could eat of every tree in the Garden but one.

Third, Eve changed what God had said. She responded to the Serpent by saying: “We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die.” That is not what God said! She subtracted the words “freely” and “every.” She did not differentiate between the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil. In fact, she even confused them. Lastly she added to the Word of God by saying “neither shall ye touch it.”

Finally the Serpent contradicted the Word of God. He said, “Ye shall not surely die,” and then uttered the Great Lie, “Ye shall be as gods.”

Thus tempted, Eve looked at the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil and saw that it was “good for food,…pleasant to the eyes, and…to be desired to make one wise” – the three attributes of this world of which John wrote:

Love not the world, neither the things that are in the world. If any man love the world, the Father is not in him. For all that is in the world is the lust of the flesh, and the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, is not of the Father, but is of the world.[3]

Eve then ate of the forbidden fruit.

It is important to note here that Eve’s eating of the forbidden fruit did not constitute the Fall.

First, God had uttered the permission, the prohibition, and the sanction regarding eating of the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil to Adam before he created Eve. Adam, the man, was responsible for observing and enforcing God’s prohibition.

Second, Adam was required to protect Eve from anything or anyone threatening her – that is, to provide a covering for Eve – and Eve was required to honor Adam’s authority over her. In this situation, she should have allowed Adam to respond to the serpent and speak for the family, but she did not do so. Either Adam was elsewhere or he was present, but in either case he failed in his duty to intervene.

Third, when Adam became aware of what Eve had done, he had not yet sinned. He now had the opportunity to repudiate what Eve had done. Indeed, it was his duty to do so as Eve’s husband and covering.

I imagine that all the angels in heaven stood still and watched to see what would happen next.

The Fall of Adam

The Fall of Adam is described in Genesis 3:6b-7, which reads as follows:

3:6b …and [Eve] gave [the fruit] also unto her husband with her; and he did eat. 7 And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons.

Eve handed the forbidden fruit to her husband, who was now with her, and “….he did eat!”

Now, it is a biblical principle that one person represents the group of people over whom he exercises leadership or authority. The husband represents the family, the priest represents the congregation, and the king represents the nation. In each case the representative’s righteousness or unrighteousness affects the group. The representative’s faithfulness or unfaithfulness, obedience or disobedience, determines the blessings or the curses which God will visit upon the group – sometimes “unto the third and fourth generation,” sometimes “to a thousand generations.”

Adam was not just the head of a family. He was the first man and thus he was the progenitor of all men, women, and children to follow – with the exception of our Lord. Thus he was the representative of all mankind. By eating the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, Adam brought ruin, not just on himself and his family, but on all mankind. Paul made this clear when he wrote:

…death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam’s transgression, who is the figure of him that was to come….For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous.[4]

Adam’s behavior here is a good example of uxoriousness – that is, a husband’s indulgence of his wife by allowing her to say or do what she wants, even if what she wants is wrong in God’s sight. The motivation behind uxoriousness is easy to understand. The husband wants to please his wife and to avoid conflict in the house. Unfortunately, uxoriousness is all too common in husbands. Pleasing one’s wife rather pleasing God can become a habit.

Immediately after Adam ate the forbidden fruit, both Adam and Eve felt naked, and they tried to cloth themselves with aprons of fig-leaves and hide from God. Of course Adam and Eve felt the shame of physical nakedness, but this shame was only a part of their sense of nakedness. Moreover, they had succeeded in clothing themselves in aprons, and thus their physical nakedness was not the real issue. The real issue is revealed in the next section.

The Interrogation of Adam and Eve

The Interrogation of Adam and Eve is described in Genesis 3:8-13, which reads as follows:

And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day: and Adam and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden. And the LORD God called unto Adam, and said unto him, Where art thou? And he said, I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked; and I hid myself. And he said, Who told thee that thou wast naked? Hast thou eaten of the tree, whereof I commanded thee that thou shouldest not eat? And the man said, The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. And the LORD God said unto the woman, What is this that thou hast done? And the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.(KJV)

The key to what transpired here is contained in Adam’s explanation to God of why they hid: “I heard thy voice in the garden, and I was afraid.”

Previously, neither Adam nor Eve had any reason to fear God. In fact they had enjoyed God’s companionship. Now they knew that they were exposed to God’s wrath. They were uncovered (the concept of the covering again), and their leafy aprons did not remedy this situation.

When God questioned Adam concerning whether or not they had eaten of the forbidden fruit, Adam responded with, “The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat.” Consider this response carefully. First Adam implied that God was to blame for giving him that disobedient woman. Second, he implied that Eve was to blame for giving him the fruit, even though he could have chosen not to eat it. Only lastly did he admit his transgression.

Eve then blamed the Serpent: “The Serpent beguiled me, and I did eat.”

All of this finger-pointing is typical of fallen humanity. I do it. You do it. We all do it. How many times have we said: It wasn’t me, it was him – or her – or them?

The Judgment of the Serpent, Eve, and Adam
(including the Adamic Covenant)

The Judgment of the Serpent, Eve, and Adam is described in Genesis 3:14-24, which reads as follows:

And the LORD God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life: And I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel. Unto the woman he said, I will greatly multiply thy sorrow and thy conception; in sorrow thou shalt bring forth children; and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall rule over thee. And unto Adam he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field; In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken: for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return. And Adam called his wife’s name Eve; because she was the mother of all living. Unto Adam also and to his wife did the LORD God make coats of skins, and clothed them. And the LORD God said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever: Therefore the LORD God sent him forth from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence he was taken. So he drove out the man; and he placed at the east of the garden of Eden Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned every way, to keep the way of the tree of life. (KJV)

Verses 3:14-19 indicate that God passed judgment on all concerned.

Verses 3:14-15 – Because the serpent instigated man’s rebellion, God condemned him to crawl upon his belly in the dust forever and to be bruised in the head by the Seed of the Woman (the Lord Jesus Christ).

Verses 3:16 – Because Eve rejected her husband’s covering and persuaded him to rebel, God condemned her – and all women after her – to bear children in pain and to desire and be ruled over by her husband.

Verse 3:17-19 – Because Adam ate of the forbidden fruit – for he was the one to whom God gave dominion over the Garden and thus he was the one whom God held ultimately responsible – God condemned Adam – and all men after him – to toil for food and to die physically – he had already died spiritually. In order to force Adam to toil, God cursed the earth: henceforth it would bring forth thorns and thistles and resist Adam’s efforts to cultivate it. This curse affected not just the soil in which men would toil, but Universe in its entirety. It altered the fabric of the cosmos, introducing decay and disorder into the inanimate world and disease and death into the animate world.

Verse 3:20 indicates again that Adam named his wife Eve “because she was the mother of all living” – that is, the mother of all subsequent people. Lest that she would be the mother of all subsequent people seems obvious, remember that Adam was created by God out of the earth and Eve was formed by God out of bone and flesh that God had removed from Adam’s side. Neither Adam nor Eve was born of a woman. But each and every subsequent person would be born of a woman, who was a descendant of Eve.

Verses 3:21-24 indicate that God made certain provisions for Adam and Eve.

Verse 3:21 indicates that God immediately provided a covering for Adam and Eve. This verse is critically important. Above, I spent some time on the concept of the covering and showed how Eve forsook the covering of her husband, and how Adam failed to stop her from doing so and then failed to countermand what she had done. Now, because Adam failed to prevent or repudiate Eve’s disobedience and then disobeyed God himself, both Adam and Eve were exposed to the wrath of God. They needed a covering to protect them. As an expression of his mercy and loving kindness to those who have faith in him, God provided such a covering. He slew animals – probably sheep – and gave them to Adam and Eve to cover their nakedness. In doing so, he shed the blood of innocent creatures. From this, Adam and Eve should have learned that atonement for sin can only be provided by God himself through the shedding of innocent blood.

Verse 3:22 indicates that God expelled Adam and Eve from the Garden as a preventative measure. Adam and Eve were no longer innocent. They now knew the difference between good and evil, but they knew it imperfectly, and they had demonstrated a willingness to act on their own judgment. If they and their descendants ate of the Tree of Life, they would live forever and fill the earth with rebellious people. Thus he expelled them as a preventative measure.

Verse 3:23 indicates that God also expelled Adam and Eve from the Garden as a pedagogical lesson. They and their descendants had to learn the seriousness of what they had done, which only living with the consequences of their sin could teach them. Adam had to struggle with the earth to produce food, and Eve had to bear children in pain, as God had sentenced them to do. Then both had to die physically. Not surprisingly, there is a lesson here for all of us. Despite the fact that we may repent of our sins, God will usually require that we suffer their consequences.

Verse 3:24 indicates that God provided Adam and Eve with a place to meet with God in the future. God placed the Cherubim at the gates of Eden to guard them – “to keep the way of the Tree of Life.” Some commentators see the Cherubim solely as preventing Adam and Eve from returning to Eden. I see them as also keeping open the way back to Eden and the Tree of Life. I believe that these are the Cherubim to which Exodus 25:10-22 refers. God instructed the Israelites (a) to build an ark in which to store the two tablets on which God had written the ten commandments, (b) to build a golden Mercy Seat on top of the ark, and (c) to place a golden Cherub on each end of the Mercy Seat, facing inward so that their wings would meet in a protective embrace, both in front of and behind the Mercy Seat. God then promised Moses, “…there I will meet with thee, and I will commune with thee from above the mercy seat, from between the two Cherubims which are upon the ark of the testimony,…” [5]. The LORD Himself would be “the way” which individuals must take to return to Eden and to a continuous fellowship with God. During the time between the construction of the Tabernacle circa 1464 BC and the destruction of the Herodian Temple in 70 AD, once a year on the Day of Atonement the High Priest entered the inner-sanctum of the Tabernacle or Temple, which was called the Holy of Holies, and sprinkled the blood of innocent lambs on the Mercy Seat as atonement for the sins of the nation – this blood was a prefigurement of the blood that Jesus would spill on Calvary..

God’s Curse on Universe and the Expulsion

In addition to his judgments on Satan, Eve, and Adam, God imposed a curse on Universe as a whole, which resulted in what I call “the Adam Disturbance.”

The Adam Disturbance consisted of a change in the fabric of Universe. After it, all physical systems tended toward disorder and decay and all living organism became subject to disease and death. Thus I surmise that a universal cataclysm occurred, which rendered Universe subject to the processes described by the Law of Entropy (or the Second Law of Thermodynamics). The exact nature of the cataclysm is not unknown. Moreover, its other effects are not known. For instance, it may have altered the earth’s topography, because the biblical description of Eden cannot be matched to an existing area of land. This cataclysmic event, however, was followed by so many other cataclysmic events that discerning all of its effects is probably impossible. This event probably coincided with the laying down of the NEOPROTEROZOIC STRATA in the orthodox geologic column.[6]

Probably coincident with or immediately following the Adam Disturbance, God expelled mankind from Eden (hereafter, this event is referred to as “The Expulsion”).

Neither the Adam Disturbance nor the Expulsion is dated.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
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[1] Adam and Eve were comfortable roaming about naked.

[2] 1 Corinthians 11: 3-7, Ephesians 5: 23.

[3] I John 2: 15-16.

[4] Romans 5: 14, 19.

[5] Exodus 25:22.

[6] The third and final phase of the Proterozoic Eon in the orthodox geologic column.

Timeline 0 – Creation Week

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted June 19, 2017

This week, I am starting a series of timelines that will outline the history of the world which I have constructed and which conforms to the chronology of the Bible. This series will be interspersed among blogs on other subjects and will follow the structure in the table below.  

                                                   GENERIC TIMELINES
Timeline 0 – Creation Week (3977 BC)
Timeline 1 – Edenic Era (3977 BC)
Timeline 2 – Antediluvian Era (3977-2321 BC)
Timeline 3A – Postdiluvian Era’s early phase 3A (2321-1870 BC)
Timeline 3B – Postdiluvian Era’s late phase 3B (1870-1464 BC)
Timeline 4A – Turbulent Era’s early phase 4A (1464-1008 BC)
Timeline 4B – Turbulent Era’s middle phase 4B (1008-754 BC)
Timeline 4C – Turbulent Era’s late phase 4C (754-665 BC)
Timeline 5A – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5A (Occident)
Timeline 5B – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5B (Middle East)
Timeline 5C – Early Historic Era (665-2 BC)’s part 5C (Orient)
Timeline 6A – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6A (Occident & Middle East)
Timeline 6B – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6B (Orient)
Timeline 6C – Late Historic Era (2 BC-present)’s part 6C (Sacred)

—CREATION WEEK (3977 BC) —

  Creation of Universe – a summary

Creation of Universe is described in Genesis 1:1-2:3 (for a more detailed description, see my blog of February 27, 2017 entitled Natural History 2 – an introduction to biblical cosmology continued). It was accomplished in seven 24-hour days.

Day 1 – God created Universe ex nihilo. It consisted of two parts:

Part A – a giant globe of water (matter), illuminated on one side, at Universe’s center, and

Part B – a spherical shell (space) of unknown composition and thickness, above and surrounding the globe of water.

Day 2 – God divided the giant globe of water (matter) into three parts or spatial segments:

Part A1 – a small globe of water at Universe’s center, which the Bible calls “the waters which were under the firmament” (Genesis 1:7),

Part A2 – an intermediate spherical shell of water of unknown thickness, above and surrounding the small globe of water, which the Bible calls “the firmament” and

Part A3 – an outer spherical shell of water of unknown thickness,[1] above and surrounding the firmament which the Bible calls “the waters which were above the firmament” (Genesis 1:7) and which I call “the upper waters.”[2]

Day 3 – God divided and transformed Part A1 – the small globe of water into three parts or spatial segments:

Part A1a – the land, which consisted of a solid globe of minerals at its center,

 Part A1b – the sea, which initially consisted of a spherical shell of water above and surrounding the land, and

Part A1cthe air or atmosphere, which consisted of a spherical shell of gases above and surrounding the globe. God then adjusted the interface between the land and the sea so that the surface of the matter below the air was divided into two segments: A single continent and a single sea, which surrounded the land. God then created flora on the land and in the sea.[3]

Day 4 – God transformed the firmament into interstellar space, which the Bible calls “the first heaven.” Its content by mass is primarily electromagnetic plasma (est. 96%) and secondarily astronomical bodies (est. 4%), such as stars, planets, moons, asteroids, and comets which are located within astronomical objects such as galaxies, nebulae, star clusters, and planetary systems – starting with the earth’s sun and moon.

Day 5 – God created the fish and the fowl – first the fish to populate the sea and then the fowl to populate the air.

Day 6 – God created animals and humans – first the beasts, insects, etc. to populate the land and then humans to populate and subdue (cultivate) the entire earth and to exercise dominion over all other living creatures. In other words, God made humans to be the stewards of the earth.

Day 7 – After finishing Universe, which consisted of the earth, the first heaven, the upper waters, and the second heaven. God rested from his work of creating and sanctified the seventh day as a day of rest.

Creation of Eden

The Creation of Eden probably occurred on Day 6 of Creation Week. It is described in Genesis 2:8-14, which reads as follows:

2:8 And the LORD God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed. 9 And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. 10 And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. 11 The name of the first is Pison: that is it which compasseth the whole land of Havilah, where there is gold; 12 And the gold of that land is good: there is bdellium and the onyx stone. 13 And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia. 14 And the name of the third river is Hiddekel: that is it which goeth toward the east of Assyria. And the fourth river is Euphrates. (KJV)

Verse 2:8 indicates that God created the Garden of Eden for mankind and then placed Adam in it. The phrase “eastward in Eden” is interesting. I believe it indicates that it was east of the Middle East where most of the Biblical events occurred. That would put it in Central Asia.

Verse 2:9 indicates that God put every tree and plant that was both pleasant to look at and good to eat in the Garden, including two special trees – the Tree of Life and the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil – which God placed at the center of the Garden. It is critical that we understand the meaning and significance of these two special trees.

The Tree of Life symbolizes life which is lived dependent upon the Word of God. In the description of New Jerusalem in Revelation 22, the Tree of Life stands adjacent to the river which flows out of the Throne of God and of the Lamb at the center of the City. The tree’s roots are nourished continually by the living waters of the Word of God.

The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil symbolizes life which is lived independent of the Word of God – at least in part. That part is the determination of what is good and what is evil. That this determination belongs to God, the Serpent makes explicit when, as we shall see later, he suggested to Eve that, when she eats of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, “…your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil” (Genesis 3: 5). As gods? No. As God!

Verses 2:10-14 provide some geographical information about the Garden. A river went through the Garden and then, upon leaving the Garden, broke into four branches: the Pison, the Gihon, the Hiddekel, and the Euphrates. Although there have been many attempts to identify these rivers with rivers that exist today, in my opinion, none are convincing. In fact, I believe that the attempt to map the surface of the earth in Edenic and Antediluvian times is fruitless. Since those days, the topography of the earth has been significantly altered by the Flood of Noah and other more recent cataclysms.

The Edenic Covenant

The Edenic Covenant is described in Genesis 2:15-17, which reads as follows:

2:15 And the LORD God took the man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it. 16 And the LORD God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: 17 But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die. (KJV)

 Verse 2:15 indicates that God told Adam that he put Adam in the garden “to dress it and to keep it.”

Verse 2:16 records the command that God then issued to Adam, which is called the Adamic Covenant. The command had three elements: a permission, a prohibition, and a sanction.

The permission is extraordinarily unrestrictive. Adam may eat anything in the garden that he wants with only one exception. Considering the variety of flora which must have been there – all past and present species – the permission amounts to almost total freedom.

The prohibition, on the other hand, is very restrictive and specific. Adam must eschew eating the fruit of only one tree – the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil.

The sanction for disregarding this prohibition is terrible. If Adam eats of the forbidden fruit, he shall die.

Here God freely gave Adam access to the Tree of Life, just as God freely gave Adam life. God withheld only one thing from Adam; the right to determine what is good and what is evil. God reserved that determination to himself. God would determine what is good and what is evil – not Adam.

Notice that God established the Edenic Covenant before he created Eve. Although the covenant applied to all mankind, he gave it to Adam as the first man and therefore the head of the human race. Adam, the man, was therefore responsible for ensuring that all his descendants understand and adhere to the terms of the covenant.

Adam’s First Task

Adam’s First Task” is described in Genesis 2:18-20, which reads as follows:

2:18 And the LORD God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. 19 And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. 20 And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. (KJV)

In order to show Adam his need for a companion of a special sort, God gave Adam a specific task. Note that it was a scientific task – the taxonomic project of naming and ordering all living creatures. In doing so, Adam discovered that, whereas every other living species but mankind was created male and female, mankind lacked a female.

 The Creation of Eve – a Bride for Adam

The Creation of Eve – a Bride for Adam is described in Genesis 2:21-25, which reads as follows:

2:21 And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; 22 And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. 23 And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. 24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. 25 And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed. (KJV)

A few observations.

First, the word translated “rib” here is usually translated “side.” God took flesh and bone from Adam’s side with which to form Eve.

Second, the word translated “made” here bears the connotation of “formed” or “sculpted” – the female figure was not just a replica of the male body, but a divine work of art.

Third, there are some interesting family relationships here. God created Adam, and so Adam was a son of God. Now God wanted to present his son with a bride. To ensure that Adam and his bride were of the same species, God took genetic material from Adam’s side and with it he created a woman. Since God created the woman, she was a daughter of God and therefore a sister of Adam. Then the father of the bride gave away his daughter to the groom, just as happens in most Christian marriage ceremonies. Thus Adam and the woman were first brother and sister and then husband and wife, just as later Abraham and Sarah were first brother and sister and then husband and wife.

Verse 2:24 indicates that Adam recognized in the woman the mate that he had been lacking, and he took her to be his wife. Henceforth they would be an independent family.

Verse 2:25 indicates that Adam named his wife “Woman” or “Eve.” By doing so, Adam exhibited a biblical principle. The person in authority over another has the right to name or rename him. God named Adam. Adam named Eve. Later, we will see that God renamed Abram, calling him Abraham. Parents name their children.

 © 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
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[1] “Praise him, ye heavens of heavens, and ye waters that be above the heaven” (KJV Psalm 148:4).

[2] Above and surrounding Part A3 was the Part B – a spherical shell (space) described above, which I call the 2nd heaven.

[3] Processes must have been moving very fast at this point in order for seeds to germinate and mature within hours.

Russell Vought and Bernie Sanders

by John Holbrook Jr.
A Biblical View, posted June 12, 2017

The exchange between Mr. Russell Vought and Senator Bernie Sanders during the Senate hearing on June 7, 2017 concerning Mr. Vought’s appointment to Deputy Director of the White House Office of Management and Budget perpetuated and to some extent legitimized two erroneous ideas: (1) that the U.S. Constitution permits the application of a religious test for federal office and (2) that Christianity maintains that people are “condemned” for not believing in Jesus.

The first issue is straightforward and simple. Article VI of the U.S. Constitution states, “…no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.” That a US senator was ignorant of or – worse – chose to ignore this proscription is stunning. He should apologize to Mr. Vought or be censured by his colleagues.

The second issue is also straightforward, but more complex than the first. The Bible indicates that people are condemned by their sinfulness – not their unbelief in Jesus. In order to demonstrate this, I need to explain mankind’s predicament and God’s solution to it.

First, mankind’s predicament: Every man, woman, and child is born a sinner. King David wrote, “Behold, I was shaped in iniquity, and in sin did my mother conceive me” (KJ21 Psalm 51:5). That applies to Mr. Vought. That applies to Senator Sanders. That applies to me. That applies to you. There are no exceptions. Every person begins life condemned. Moreover, every person remains a sinner in God’s eyes. King David wrote, “…there is none that doeth good; no, not one” (Psalm 14:3, 53:3) and Paul wrote, “There is none righteous, no, not one” (KJ21 Psalm 14:3, KJ21 Romans 3:10). Finally, the penalty for sin is death – physical death and spiritual death. Paul wrote, “…the wages of sin is death…” (Romans 6:23). The foregoing is what I call the “bad news.”

Second, God’s solution to mankind’s predicament: The following is what God’s Word, the Bible, calls the Gospel or “good news.” In fulfillment of all the prophecies concerning the Messiah in the Tenakh (Old Testament), God sent his Son into the world in the person of Jesus, the Jewish carpenter from Nazareth, to save people – i.e. to die on a cross to atone for the sins of anyone who accepts Him as his or her Savior and Lord. As Isaiah prophesized, “All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the LORD hath laid on Him the iniquity of us all” (KJ21 Isaiah 53:6). God did not send his Son into the world to condemn people. “For God sent not His son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved” (KJ21 John 3:17). Moreover, salvation is a free gift from God – not something a person can earn. “For by grace are ye saved through faith, and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God – not by works, lest any man should boast” (KJ21 Ephesians 2:8-9). It cannot be earned. It cannot be bought. It can only be received with humility and gratitude at the feet of a gracious sovereign.

Third, the universality and the exclusivity of the Gospel: The Gospel is universal, because it offers salvation to everyone. Paul wrote, “For I am not ashamed of the Gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God unto salvation to every one who believeth; to the Jew first, and also to the Greek [or Gentile]” (KJ21 Romans 1:16). The Gospel is also exclusive, because the only source of salvation is faith and trust in the finished work of Jesus, the Jewish Messiah. Referring to “the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth” (KJ21 Acts 4:10), Peter said to the rulers, priests, and scribes of Israel, “Neither is there salvation in any other [name], for there is no other name under heaven given among men whereby we must be saved” (KJ21 Acts 4:12). God insists that sinners approach him through his Son, “For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself a ransom for all…” (21KJ 1 Timothy 2:5).

The difference between the approach to God advocated by the Gospel and the approach to God advocated by the world’s religions is that the Gospel focuses on what God has done to make people acceptable to himself whereas the approach to God advocated by the world’s religions, including Judaism, Islam, and even much of institutional Christianity, focuses on what a person must do to become acceptable to God. He or she must ascribe to certain creeds, wear certain clothing, eat or not eat certain foods, perform certain rites, undertake certain works, etc. A person can exhaust himself or herself doing all these things, but in the end he or she will fail to please God. To repeat myself, acceptance by God cannot be earned or bought.

If you sincerely want to be acceptable to God, start seeking Jesus. Start reading the Bible, for Jesus said, “Search the scriptures; …it is they which testify of me” (21KJ John 5:39). As you search, keep in mind the following verse: “…without faith it is impossible to please Him. For he that cometh to God must believe that He is, and that He is a rewarder of them that diligently seek Him” (KJ21 Hebrews 11:6).

I wish that my brother Russell had countered Senator Sander’s attack on him with a proclamation of the Gospel, not the refrain “I am a Christian,” which explained nothing. Perhaps next time.

© 2017 John Holbrook Jr.
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